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WHAT IS AUTISM?

Autism is a developmental disorder that causes difficulty in communication, social skills & relations and a typical behavior sometimes characterized in the form of repetitive movements, and insistence on routine or sameness. These three characteristics are often known as the “triad of symptoms”. In order to receive a diagnosis of autism an individual must possess all three symptoms to some degree

WHAT IS PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER (PDD)?

This is a term used to describe the umbrella that a group or spectrum of disorders are characterized under. It is a class of disorders all of which share similar symptoms or characteristics.

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER AND PDD?

The two terms are used synonymously to refer to a wide spectrum of neuro developmental disorders that have the triad of symptoms in common. 
There are five disorders that fall under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders:

Autism - It is a developmental disorder that causes difficulty in communication, social relations and atypical behaviour sometimes characterized in the form of repetitive movements, and insistence on routine or sameness.

Rett disorder - It is the development of several specific deficits after a period of normal functioning following birth. The child loses previously acquired hand skills. The child then develops hand movement resembling hand wringing or hand washing. Interest in the social environment diminishes in the first few years after the onset of the disorder. There is also significant impairment in expressive and receptive language.

Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) - It's a disorder that causes regression in multiple areas of functioning after a period of at least two years of apparently normal development. After the first two years of life, the child has significant loss of previously acquired skills in at least two of the following areas: expressive or receptive language; social skills or adaptive behavior; bowel or bladder control; or play or motor skills. Individuals with this disorder exhibit the social and communicative deficits and behavioral features generally observed in Autistic Disorder, as there is also impairment in social interaction, communication, and restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities.

Social Communication Disorders

(Asperger Syndrome ) – Impairment in social interaction and restricted interests, and activities. Inflexible adherence to specific nonfunctional routines or rituals, stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms and persistent preoccupation with parts of objects. Additionally, it may involve impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following: marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction, failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to chronological age.

Pervasive developmental disorder/Not Otherwise Specified (PDDnos) This is a diagnosis used when a child displays mild but symptoms of impairment in social interaction or verbal and non-verbal communication skills; stereotyped behaviors, interests and activities but does not meet a diagnosis of autism because the symptoms occur at a late stage.

WHAT IS ABA ?

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree and to demonstrate experimentally that the procedures employed were responsible for the improvement in behavior (Baer, Wolf and Risley 1968). We at C.A.R.E ABA center are committed to provide ABA Remediation and related services to the affected children.

WHAT IS IBI?

Intensive Behaviour Intervention (IBI) is a complex intervention designed for teaching young children with autism. It is composed of many specific teaching styles drawn from applied behaviour analysis that has empirically been proven to be effective in changing behaviors of young children with autism positively. C.A.R.E focuses on providing education on IBI and IBI treatments and improving the social skills to the affected ones. Visit our Autism Center and Clinic in Toronto.

WHAT IS THE MAIN GOAL OF IBI?

IBI's main goal is to positively affect the child with autism's learning trajectory and cumulative skill acquisition rates as much as possible to match that of a typically developing child through carefully monitored, effective interventions comprised of evidence-based teaching instructions.

WHAT ARE AUGMENTATIVE FORMS OF COMMUNICATION?

These are non-vocal communication systems used to promote communication and language development in individuals who have little or no vocal ability.

Forms of Augmentative communication:

Sign Language - This is a visual/spatial/gestural language that is very expressive and dependent on visual cues of the hands, body and face. Sign language has its own morphology and syntax.

Picture Exchange Communication System ( PECS ) - This is a system that allows non-verbal individuals to communicate with another person by using pictures and symbols. There are six phases to PECS and its implementation requires a physical prompter and a communicative partner.

Visual Schedule - This is a visual strategy that presents a sequence of steps, activities and events in a visual format to help a child with routines and transitions.